There are numerous publications describing the relevance of whole blood assays in a variety of fields.
You’ll be interested by these tests if you are in one of the following situations:
- You have an in vitro assay in place using blood from a limited number of donors, our access to multiple donors allows you to strengthen your results and/or to detect individual biases.
- You have designed an in vitro assay with PBMC or even monocytic cell lines (e.g. U937, THP1), our whole blood assays allow you to extent the validity of your data in complete blood and to anticipate serum interferences.
- You develop a bioequivalent of a product known to be active in whole blood assays. Blood Assay Solutions can perform side by side tests to support the functional validation of your product.
- You want to assess the bioactivity of a product following various storage conditions.
- You want to perform batch to batch comparison of your research reagents.
Modulation of inflammation and immunotoxicity
Upon incubation with fresh whole blood, proinflammatory and immunostimulating compounds induce the release of specific cytokines. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive compounds prevent the release of cytokines consecutive to the stimulation of blood. Whether you want to assess the immunotoxic potential of your compounds or their capacity to modulate the immune response, Blood Assay Solutions can help you to design assays to fully characterize your products.
Cytokine storm and cytokine release syndrome
In vitro assays using fresh blood have been shown to be a valuable tool to evaluate the risk of cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome. This type of assay is especially relevant for therapeutic antibodies targeting the immune system. Blood Assay Solutions can develop this type of assay for your products.
The capacity of a product to induce a specific immune response can be assessed in whole blood assays by measuring the release of interferon gamma (IFNγ) or interleukine-2 (IL2) produced by T cells.
Cross-species reactivity and toxicology studies
Running whole blood assays with animal blood, especially non human primate blood, can help you to select the right specie(s) for your toxicology studies i.e. specie(s) in which your drug shows an activity similar to the activity measured in human blood.
Vaccine development: adjuvant, specific immune response
Adjuvants are sensed by innate immune receptors (e.g. Toll-like receptors (TLR), NOD-like receptors NLR)). In whole blood assays, adjuvants induce a rapid release of proinflammatory cytokines reflecting their potency. In vaccinated subjects, the incubation of whole blood with specific antigens results in the release of cytokines (IFNγ, IL2) reflecting the extent of immunization.
Pyrogen detection – Monocyte activation test
According to the European Pharmacopoeia, endotoxins e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and other pyrogens can be detected using whole blood assays (MAT: monocyte activation test). This alternative to the rabbit pyrogen test, is useful to validate decontamination procedures during biologics or cosmetics manufacturing for example.
Cell culture plasticware and reagents
If you are a manufacturer of cell culture plasticware and/or reagents, providing data about the bioactivity or the innocuity of your products assessed with whole blood assays is a plus. Your customers working with blood will save the time needed to find the right dose to use for their experiments. Moreover, you’ll document the suitability of your products (e.g. absence of pyrogens) for in vitro experiments using primary tissues, including blood.
In allergic individuals, the incubation of whole blood with allergens induces the release of histamine and/or inflammatory cytokines. This assay can be used to predict the allergenicity of a compound in normal population or to test different formulations of a product aimed at reducing its allergenicity in a given population.